Must-Should-Could Matrix (MSC)
The MSC Matrix is a joint planning exercise between MONUSCO and the humanitarian community. It ranks key areas that are perceived as especially vulnerable to protection threats as being “must protect”, “should protect” or “could protect”. It is up-dated by the Protection Cluster, discussed trilaterally between the cluster lead, the Brigade and Civil Affairs. Its main conclusions are submitted to the SMG-PP which decides on strategic preventive protection measures, including the deployment of MOBs/COBs/TOBs, JPTs, and activities related to early warning and response.
Following the mass rapes in Walikale, North Kivu in 2010, MONUSCO strengthened the Force with the appointment of national Community Liaison Assistants (CLAs), managed by Civil Affairs. Currently, 202 CLAs are deployed at the company or platoon level in 71 locations in Eastern Congo. The presence of the CLAs alongside United Nations troops facilitates communication with the local communities, authorities and humanitarian partners, builds confidence and eases access to local networks, thereby allowing a deeper understanding of the local context. CLAs support the MONUSCO Military and Police as well as substantive components in carrying out their mandates. They liaise with the local communities, CSOs and local authorities and facilitate POC activities, including CAN projects and monitoring the implementation of local protection plans, and missions. CLAs follow-up on JPT recommendations, when JPT missions take place in their AOR, and support capacity building for POC with national partners.
Read more about this subject in the ECHOS de la MONUSCO:
MONUSCO has organized Joint Protection Teams (JPTs) since the mass killings took place in North Kivu in 2008, to enhance preventive and responsive action for civilians at risk. Since then, over 228 JPT missions have been conducted. Core participants in the JPTs are Civil Affairs, UNJHRO and the Brigade. Depending upon the objective of the JPT and technical requirements, representatives from MONUSCO departments and sections, Government, civil society and the humanitarian community may participate. JPT objectives include the development of local protection plans in areas where MONUSCO troops are deployed, the analysis of protection threats and improvement of early warning mechanisms, as well as the establishment and reinforcement of local coordination structures (for protection) between authorities, communities and humanitarian partners. JPTs are recognized by DPKO as a Best Practice to be adapted and replicated in other peacekeeping contexts.
MONUSCO has established Community Alert Networks (CANs) and distributed mobile phones to focal points in villages surrounding the MONUSCO military bases. Focal points are selected by community members and generally drawn from local leadership. They are in regular contact with CLAs or troop commanders and raise the alert in case of imminent threat. CAN implementation is based on the “Do No Harm” principle and safeguards have been put in place to avoid negative consequences for the Focal Point or the community. Currently, 22 CANs are operational and another 20 are being implemented. The CAN programme will link over one million people in some 400 communities in the most insecure and remote areas with MONUSCO. A major CAN feature is the potential to extend the telephone network with HF communications. For instance, there are 11 MONUSCO military bases, which are not covered by a telephone network, where HF radios have been set up to communicate with the local church community network. The CAN extension is managed by CARITAS and Catholic Relief Services (CRS), and links 40 communities in South Kivu and Orientale Province that are threatened by the FDLR, Mai-Mai or LRA. In addition, USAID supports the extension of network coverage in Orientale through the construction of four low-cost Base Transmission Stations (BTS) in Haut and Bas Uele. Each tower will provide 315 square kilometers of cell phone coverage to an additional 1,200 mobile phone users. MONUSCO continues to look for partners to extend the project in priority areas. A CAN Committee has been established to assure effective and efficient implementation and review alternative and appropriate technology.
For more information on the CAN Project, please click here.