The Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) component of the DDR/RR section of MONUSCO supports the Government of the DRC which retains the primary responsibility for defining the DDR policies. It began its work in 2002 in the Ituri region of eastern DR Congo as a Community Disarmament and Resettlement (CDR) program. Its initial mission was to pacify the Ituri District by disarming all militias of armed groups in Ituri. Ahead of the National Program for Demobilization, the various groups were given the opportunity to participate in community resettlement projects.
The accords signed by all the Congolese warring factions called for the establishment of transit, orientation, and regrouping centers. Depending on the process, armed groups were expected to stay for five days in these centers during which they will undergo sensitization, orientation and registration formalities before being allowed to choose between integration into the army (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo, FARDC) and Demobilization and go into civilian life. Those who chose the army were sent to training centers from where, if successful, were finally integrated into the FARDC. Those who did not successfully go through the training process were sent to the Demobilization programs.
Graduates from these programs were certificated, thus entitling them to exit kits, safety nets, transportation, Resettlement and Reintegration packages. Meantime, Demobilized ex-combatants who opted to be civilians and returned home were catered for by the Programme National de Desarmement, Demobilisation, et Reinsertion (PNDDR), Commission Nationale de Demobilisation et Reinsertion (CONADER), and UNDP along with their respective partners which included among others, UNICEF.
In 2005 the National Program for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (PNDDR) was established to replace CONADER. They started handling the DDR of all Congolese Armed Groups (AGs) in the DR Congo. The program was later called the UE-PNDDR (Unité d’Exécution du Programme National de Désarmement, Démobilisation et Réinsertion). Its mandate was to work in partnership with the then MONUC, UNDP, UNICEF and Structure of Military Integration (SMI). The DDR process has so far treated more than 150000 ex-combatants belonging to various Congolese armed groups.